How to continue the gradual withdrawal of traditional energy and the replacement of new energy?

Energy is the main battlefield for achieving carbon peak and carbon neutrality, and electricity is the main force on the main battlefield. In 2020, carbon dioxide emissions from my country’s energy consumption accounted for about 88% of total emissions, while the power industry accounted for 42.5% of total emissions from the energy industry.

In the view of industry experts, promoting green energy is an important part of achieving carbon neutrality. And looking for alternatives to fossil energy is a key part of it.

For Guangdong, which is a major energy consumption province but not a major energy production province, breaking the “resource bottleneck” and realizing a smooth transition between the gradual withdrawal of traditional energy and the replacement of new energy are necessary to ensure energy security and promote high-quality economic development. There is meaning.

Resource endowment: Guangdong’s renewable energy potential lies at sea

Arriving at Ningxia Zhongwei Shapotou Airport by plane, looking out from the porthole, you can clearly see that the airport is surrounded by photovoltaic power generation panels, which is spectacular. During the 3-hour drive from Zhongwei to Shizuishan, there were windmills on both sides of Provincial Highway 218 outside the window. Ningxia, known for its desert scenery, enjoys natural superior wind, light and other resource endowments.

However, Guangdong, located on the southeast coast, does not have the natural superior resource endowment of the northwest. The large demand for land is a bottleneck restricting the development of onshore wind power and photovoltaic power in Guangdong. Guangdong’s onshore wind power and photovoltaic power generation hours are not high, and the proportion of hydropower sent from west to east is relatively high. However, the rapidly developing western provinces will also have a great need for energy in future development.

Guangdong’s advantage lies at sea. In Zhuhai, Yangjiang, Shanwei and other places, there are now large windmills in the offshore area, and many projects have been put into operation one after another. At the end of November, the 500,000-kilowatt offshore wind power project in Shanwei Houhu, all 91 large wind turbines were connected to the grid for power generation, and the electricity could reach 1.489 billion kilowatts. Time.

The high cost issue is the main bottleneck for the development of offshore wind power. Different from photovoltaics and onshore wind power, the materials and construction costs of offshore wind power are high, and the technologies for energy storage and power transmission, especially offshore power transmission, are not mature enough. Offshore wind power has not yet achieved parity.

The subsidy drive is a “crutch” for new energy to cross the “threshold” of parity. In June this year, the Guangdong Provincial Government proposed that for projects with full capacity grid connection from 2022 to 2024, subsidies per kilowatt would be 1,500 yuan, 1,000 yuan, and 500 yuan, respectively.

The agglomeration of the industrial chain is more helpful to promote the rapid development of the industry. Guangdong Province proposes to build an offshore wind power industry cluster, and strive to achieve a cumulative installed capacity of 18 million kilowatts that has been put into operation by the end of 2025, and the province’s annual wind power production capacity will reach 900 units (sets) by 2025.

It is an inevitable trend to lose the subsidy ‘crutch’ in the future and realize marketization. Under the “dual carbon” goal, strong market demand will promote offshore wind power to achieve parity through technological innovation and industrial chain agglomeration. Photovoltaic and onshore wind power have all come through this way.

Technical goal: Intelligent dispatch to ensure the safety and stability of the power grid

New energy will undoubtedly become the main body of new power sources in the future, but new energy sources such as wind and photovoltaics are inherently unstable. How can they undertake the important task of ensuring supply? How does the new power system ensure the safe and stable replacement of new energy sources?

This is a step-by-step process. To ensure energy supply and new energy to gradually replace traditional energy, it is necessary to follow the top-level design and follow the laws of marketization for dynamic balance.

The construction of a new type of power system requires planning as a guide, coordinating multiple goals such as safety, economy, and low carbon, and innovating power planning methods. This year, China Southern Power Grid proposed to basically build a new power system by 2030; in the next 10 years, it will increase the installed capacity of new energy by 200 million kilowatts, accounting for an increase of 22%; in 2030, China Southern Grid’s non-fossil energy installed capacity will increase to 65%, the proportion of power generation will increase to 61%.

Building a new type of power system with new energy as the mainstay is a tough battle. There are many challenges and many key technologies that need to be overcome. These key technologies mainly include large-scale high-efficiency consumption technology of new energy, long-distance large-capacity DC transmission technology, large-scale flexible interconnection technology of digital technology and advanced power electronic technology, AC and DC power distribution network and smart micro-grid technology, etc.

New energy power generation installation points are diverse, “rely on the sky”, coordination of multi-point, diverse and changeable power sources and the system’s safe, stable, and reliable power supply contradictions increase difficulty, system response speed requirements faster, operation mode arrangement, operation scheduling Control is more difficult, and intelligent operation scheduling is more important.

The new power system takes new energy as the main body, and the new energy with wind power and photovoltaic as the main body, the output power is unstable, has the characteristics of large fluctuations and randomness. Pumped storage is currently the most mature technology, the most economical, and the most flexibly adjustable power source for large-scale development. In the plan for the next 15 years, the construction of pumped storage will be accelerated. By 2030, it will be approximately equivalent to the installed capacity of a new Three Gorges hydropower station, supporting the access and consumption of new energy sources of more than 250 million kilowatts.

Post time: Dec-23-2021